HEAT AND TEMPERATURE:  DEFINITIONS OF TERMS – Points out the differences between classical thermodynamics and atmospheric thermodynamics.  Presents definitions from Absolute Zero to Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics.   



THE NATURE OF GAS TEMPERATURES – Develops a universal definition of gas temperatures that can be applied to the real free atmosphere, and shows how the ideal gas definition is a special case of the universal definition. 



THE EQUIVALENCE OF PHASE TEMPERATURES – Develops the concept that the total impulse force normal to and toward the sensing surface of a contact thermometer is the same for all three phases.  However, the proportions of that total impulse force contributed by each of the component impulse forces (translational, rotational, vibrational and librational) varies from phase to phase.   



WIND-INDUCED TEMPERATURE CHANGES – Develops equations that express the effective air temperatures sensed by objects exposed to moving air. Relative molecular impact speeds reflect both thermal speeds and the wind speed at the angle of incidence of the wind.



THE LATENT HEAT FALLACY – Offers an alternative hypothesis to the conventional hypotheses on the nature of the enthalpies of phase change.  One outcome of this new hypothesis is that no enthalpy is added to the atmosphere when condensation of water vapor occurs.  The temperature increase in the remaining gaseous air is shown to be a result of molecular selection in the condensation process. 



WATER AND THE EARTH’S HEAT BUDGET – Develops six heat budgets for the earth-atmosphere system:  Disposition of Insolation, Energy Budget of the Atmosphere – Inflow, Energy Budget of the Atmosphere – Outflow, Energy Budget of the Earth’s Surface – Inflow, Energy Budget of the Earth’s Surface – Outflow, and Sources of Earthshine.  



THE HYDROLOGIC HEAT PUMPShows how water is evaporated into the atmosphere at a higher temperature and condenses out of the atmosphere at a lower temperature.  This serves to transfer enthalpy from the surface to the atmosphere and contributes to the atmosphere’s heat budget.