WATER IN THE FREE ATMOSPHERE – Ubiquity and abundance in the free atmosphere.  Water and the heat budgets.  The hydrologic heat pump.  Intermolecular attractions and repulsions.  The fallacy of equilibrium. 



VAPOR, WATER, AND ICE – Water as a non-ideal substance.  Enthalpic characteristics of the water molecule.  Water phases in the free atmosphere.  Intermolecular bonds, thermal agitation, and phase changes.



WATER MOLECULES – The basic water molecule.  Molecular structure.  Bonding angles and lengths.  Electron cloud configurations.  Isotopic variations.  Water species.  Water structures and clusters.  Molecular masses. 



WATER STRUCTURES – Structures are non-polymeric.  Hydrogen bonding.  Bonding limitations and longevity.  Water structures.  Structures in water vapor.  Structures in ice.  Structures in liquid water.  Surface tension. 



WATER IONIZATIONSelf ionization.  Ionization mechanisms.  Ionic variations.  The perfidious proton.  Ionization and structures. 



GROSS VAPORIZATION – Definitions.  The zone of attraction.  Surface tension, hygroscopic forces, and ionic forces.  Departure and outflow.  Thermal distributions.  Selection and escape.  Heat of vaporization. 






GROSS SUBLIMATIONDefinitions.  Spontaneity of sublimation.  Dynamic balance between ice and vapor.  Zones of molecular attraction.  Quasi-liquid layers.  Molecular outflows.  The Knudsen layer.  Escape velocities.  Distribution of sub-surface impulses.  Escape rates. Latent heat (enthalpy) of sublimation.  Testing the working hypothesis.  Tables.  References.



NET VAPORIZATION AND CONDENSATION – Definitions.  Free atmosphere considerations.  Attraction versus repulsion.  Inflows and outflows.  Summary. 



MELTING AND FREEZING – Definitions.  The melting process.  Freezing.  Icing nuclei.  Summary. 



CONDENSATION AND ICING NUCLEI – Spontaneous nature of vaporization and melting.  Lack of spontaneity in condensation and freezing.  Essential presence of nuclei.  Hygroscopic nuclei.  Icing nuclei. 



VOLUMETRIC CHANGES – Volumetric changes at vaporization.  Volumetric changes at condensation.  Table of volumetric changes at selected elevations. 



HUMIDITY IN THE FREE ATMOSPHERE – Absolute humidity.  Dew point.  Mixing ratio.  Number density.  Relative humidity.  Specific humidity.  Vapor pressure. 



THE LATENT HEAT FALLACY – Offers an alternative hypothesis to the conventional hypothesis of the nature of latent heat.  One outcome of this new hypothesis is that no heat is added to the atmosphere when condensation occurs.  The temperature increase is shown to be a result of molecular selection in the condensation process. 



WATER AND THE EARTH’S HEAT BUDGET – Develops six heat budgets (tables) for the earth-atmosphere system:  Disposition of Insolation, Energy Budget of the Atmosphere – Inflow, Energy Budget of the Atmosphere – Outflow, Energy Budget of the Earth’s Surface – Inflow, Energy Budget of the Earth’s Surface – Outflow, and Sources of Earthshine. 



THE HYDROLOGIC HEAT PUMP – Shows how water is evaporated into the atmosphere at a higher temperature and condenses out of the atmosphere at a lower temperature.  This serves to transfer enthalpy from the surface to the atmosphere and contributes to the atmosphere’s heat budget.   



MAXWELL’S DEMON EXISTS – Origin of the term.  Essential characteristics of the demon.  The demon in the interface.  Summary. 



Copyright 2001 by Patrick Tyson     www.climates.com

Last edited in December of 2016