USEFUL CONCEPTS 
GAS LAWS IN THE
FREE ATMOSPHERE: This paper shows how many of the gas
laws useful and valid in the laboratory are neither when applied to the free
atmosphere. Many gas laws require that
the parcel of air be in a state of equilibrium. The atmosphere is never really in a state
of equilibrium—certainly not when weather is occurring. Some gas laws require keeping one parameter
constant while varying another. This
is not possible in the free atmosphere.

THE
EQUIPARTITION CONUNDRUM: The
principle of equipartition. Degrees of freedom. Allocation
of kinetic energies. Quantum
restraints. Enthalpic heat capacities
of air. The mechanism of
equipartition. How impulse transfer is
virtually solely translational.
Transfers of energy. 
PROBABILITY
DENSITY CURVE: The
Probability Density Equation, the mean value, standard deviation, history of
the Probability Density Curve, the Normal Curve, velocity distribution along
a single Cartesian axis, velocity distribution along the proximity axis, the
Error Function Curve, The Complimentary Error Function Curve, proximity
velocity curves, Table of Selected Values, evaluating the error functions. 
MAXWELL’S
DEMON EXISTS: Origin of the
term—Maxwell’s letter to Tait. Essential characteristics of the
demon. The demon in the
interface. Summary. 
THE
SPEED OF SOUND – This
paper discusses the Gamma Function and its relation to the speed of sound in
gases. The Gamma Function is shown to
be a function of the rootmeansquare speed (). The speed of
sound is shown to be the modal impulse velocity (). 
EQUILIBRIUM
AND QUASIEQUILIBRIUM – This paper points out how statistical
mechanics mandates that true equilibrium cannot really exist in real world
scenarios. Three grades of equilibrium
are examined: Molecular Equilibrium,
Operational Equilibrium, and Quasiequilibrium. 
STILL AIR
PARAMETERS – The value of common atmospheric parameters are
calculated using a standard of 1,000 hectopascals of atmospheric pressure, a
standard temperature of 25°C, and a standard vapor pressure of 10
hectopascals. Values are then obtained
for humid air, dry air, and water vapor.
Parameters evaluated include:
temperature, pressure, number density, mean molecular masses, mean
molecular speeds and velocities, mean molecular flows, mean molecular
momenta, specific density, mean molecular collisions with surfaces and with
one another, mean free paths, mean molecular impulses, and mean kinetic
energies of translation. 

Last
revised in August of 2014 